definition of adipose tissue

From: Encyclopedia of Endocrine Diseases (Second Edition), 2019 Adipose tissue is derived from preadipocytes. connective tissue composed mostly of fat cells, which are seen underneath the epidermis and encompassing major bodily organs. Perivascular adipose tissue releases adipokines such as adiponectin that affect the contractile function of the vessels that they surround. [7], In an obese person, excess adipose tissue hanging downward from the abdomen is referred to as a panniculus. [39] It is stored in relatively high amounts around the organs of the abdominal cavity, but is not to be confused with visceral fat. Test your visual vocabulary with our 10-question challenge! To achieve this, the meter passes a small, harmless, electric current through the body and measures the resistance, then uses information on the person's weight, height, age, and sex to calculate an approximate value for the person's body fat percentage. Both the mesenteric and omental depots incorporate much lymphoid tissue as lymph nodes and milky spots, respectively. (Cardiac Lipoma, NCI Thesaurus) A rare benign adipose tissue neoplasm of the central nervous system frequently found in midline locations such as the corpus callosum, the quadrigeminal plate, the hypothalamus, the spinal canal or the cauda equina. In contrast with clinical tools, one relatively inexpensive type of body fat meter uses the principle of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) in order to determine an individual's body fat percentage. Attempts to simulate this process pharmacologically have so far been unsuccessful. Apart from adipocytes, which comprise the highest percentage of cells within adipose tissue, other cell types are present, collectively termed stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of cells. The two types of adipose tissue are white adipose tissue (WAT), which stores energy, and brown adipose tissue (BAT), which generates body heat. Diagrammatic sectional view of the skin (magnified). Adipose tissue, or fatty tissue, connective tissue consisting mainly of fat cells (adipose cells, or adipocytes), specialized to synthesize and contain large globules of … The calculation measures the total volume of water in the body (lean tissue and muscle contain a higher percentage of water than fat), and estimates the percentage of fat based on this information. Fatty acids deposited in the white adipose tissue as triacylglycerols represent the largest energy store in higher eukaryotes. More from Merriam-Webster on adipose tissue, Britannica.com: Encyclopedia article about adipose tissue. Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Adipose definition, fatty; consisting of, resembling, or relating to fat. We, FDA, are providing you, human cells, tissues, and cellular and tissue-based product (HCT/P) manufacturers, healthcare providers, and FDA staff, with our current thinking on … [28], The relationship between the subcutaneous adipose layer and total body fat in a person is often modelled by using regression equations. Adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes. The most popular of these equations was formed by Durnin and Wormersley, who rigorously tested many types of skinfold, and, as a result, created two formulae to calculate the body density of both men and women. The calorie-burning capacity of brown and beige fat has been extensively studied as research efforts focus on therapies targeted to treat obesity and diabetes. [4] Adipose depots in different parts of the body have different biochemical profiles. [62], Cold is a primary regulator of BAT processes and induces WAT browning. [49] Oxygen levels seem to play an important role on the metabolism and in general the function of adipose-derived stem cells. [53] BAT is primarily located around the neck and large blood vessels of the thorax, where may effectively act in heat exchange. The adipocytes in this depot are derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) which can give rise to fat cells, bone cells as well as other cell types. [75] This suggests that some of the adipocytes switched to a beige phenotype at 6 °C. All rights reserved. It offers basic safety and insularity and will work as an energy source. [61] β3 agonists, like CL316,243, have also been developed and tested in humans. Fat cells also have an endocrine function as they can secrete hormones. fatty tissue, fat. In addition to adipocytes, adipose tissue contains the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of cells including preadipocytes, fibroblasts, vascular endothelial cells and a variety of immune cells such as adipose tissue macrophages. Within the fat (adipose) tissue of CCR2 deficient mice, there is an increased number of eosinophils, greater alternative Macrophage activation, and a propensity towards type 2 cytokine expression. animal tissue- the tissue in the bodies of animals. Adipose refers to tissue made up of mainly fat cells such as the yellow layer of fat beneath the skin. Adipose tissue, or fat, is an anatomical term for loose connective tissue composed of adipocytes. Minor depots include the pericardial, which surrounds the heart, and the paired popliteal depots, between the major muscles behind the knees, each containing one large lymph node. [8], Visceral fat or abdominal fat[9] (also known as organ fat or intra-abdominal fat) is located inside the abdominal cavity, packed between the organs (stomach, liver, intestines, kidneys, etc.). In addition, adipose-derived stem cells from both human and animals reportedly can be efficiently reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells without the need for feeder cells. Adipose definition: of, resembling, or containing fat ; fatty | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Why do we need to keep adding new words to the English language? A study in mice demonstrated that cold-induced browning can be completely reversed in 21 days, with measurable decreases in UCP1 seen within a 24-hour period. RNA-Seq has been used in both human and mouse studies in an attempt characterize beige adipocytes according to their gene expression profiles and to identify potential therapeutic molecules that may induce the beige phenotype. Ectopic fat is the storage of triglycerides in tissues other than adipose tissue, that are supposed to contain only small amounts of fat, such as the liver, skeletal muscle, heart, and pancreas. Still, many types of MSC, in … ", "Belly fat in women: Taking – and keeping – it off", "Gluteofemoral body fat as a determinant of metabolic health", "Caloric restriction leads to high marrow adiposity and low bone mass in growing mice", "Expansion of Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue During Caloric Restriction Is Associated With Increased Circulating Glucocorticoids and Not With Hypoleptinemia", "Increased bone marrow fat in anorexia nervosa", "Exercise Decreases Marrow Adipose Tissue Through ß-Oxidation in Obese Running Mice", "Exercise Regulation of Marrow Fat in the Setting of PPARγ Agonist Treatment in Female C57BL/6 Mice", "Bone marrow fat accumulation accelerated by high fat diet is suppressed by exercise", "Ectopic fat and insulin resistance: pathophysiology and effect of diet and lifestyle interventions", "The Chemical Composition of Adipose Tissue of Man and Mice", "The role of leptin in the control of insulin-glucose axis", "Fat-Bellied Monkeys Suggest Why Stress Sucks", "Human and mouse adipose-derived cells support feeder-independent induction of pluripotent stem cells", "Functional differences in visceral and subcutaneous fat pads originate from differences in the adipose stem cell", "Comparison of human adipose-derived stem cells isolated from subcutaneous, omental, and intrathoracic adipose tissue depots for regenerative applications", "Oxygenation of adipose tissue: A human perspective", "Tissue Physiology and Pathology of Aromatase", "Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins and energy metabolism", "Mechanism of fatty-acid-dependent UCP1 uncoupling in brown fat mitochondria", "The on-off switches of the mitochondrial uncoupling proteins", "Identification and importance of brown adipose tissue in adult humans", "Brown and beige fat: development, function and therapeutic potential", "Brown fat as a therapy for obesity and diabetes", "Mitochondrial turnover: a phenotype distinguishing brown adipocytes from interscapular brown adipose tissue and white adipose tissue", "Turning WAT into BAT: a review on regulators controlling the browning of white adipocytes", "Prdm16 is required for the maintenance of brown adipocyte identity and function in adult mice", "Ebf2 is a selective marker of brown and beige adipogenic precursor cells", "SnapShot: Brown and Beige Adipose Thermogenesis", "EBF2 transcriptionally regulates brown adipogenesis via the histone reader DPF3 and the BAF chromatin remodeling complex", "A PGC1-α-dependent myokine that drives brown-fat-like development of white fat and thermogenesis", "Roles of FGFs as Adipokines in Adipose Tissue Development, Remodeling, and Metabolism", "FGF21 is an endocrine signal of protein restriction", "Group 2 innate lymphoid cells promote beiging of white adipose tissue and limit obesity", "Brown and white adipose tissues: intrinsic differences in gene expression and response to cold exposure in mice", "Transcriptional and epigenetic control of brown and beige adipose cell fate and function", "EBF2 promotes the recruitment of beige adipocytes in white adipose tissue", "Recent advances in understanding leptin signaling and leptin resistance", "Obese (ob) gene defects are rare in human obesity", "Congenital leptin deficiency due to homozygosity for the Delta133G mutation: report of another case and evaluation of response to four years of leptin therapy", "A new missense mutation in the leptin gene causes mild obesity and hypogonadism without affecting T cell responsiveness", "Specific force deficit in skeletal muscles of old rats is partially explained by the existence of denervated muscle fibers", "CCR2 deficiency leads to increased eosinophils, alternative macrophage activation, and type 2 cytokine expression in adipose tissue", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Adipose_tissue&oldid=997728498, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from May 2012, Pages with login required references or sources, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2012, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles containing potentially dated statements from July 2010, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 1 January 2021, at 23:22. However, hunger remains, and—when leptin levels drop due to weight loss—hunger increases. Human fat tissue contains about 87% lipids. Leptin, however, plays a different role in diet-induced obesity in rodents and humans. [75] The most significantly up- and downregulated genes were then identified and used for analysis of differentially expressed pathways. Its main role is to store energy in the form of lipids, although it also cushions and insulatesthe body. Browning of WAT, also referred to as "beiging", occurs when adipocytes within WAT depots develop features of BAT. [36][37][38] The exercise regulation of marrow fat suggests that it bears some physiologic similarity to other white adipose depots. SVF includes preadipocytes, fibroblasts, adipose tissue macrophages, and endothelial cells. [26] Marked component differences have been observed in comparing EAT with subcutaneous fat, suggesting a depot specific impact of stored fatty acids on adipocyte function and metabolism. [77], The thrifty gene hypothesis (also called the famine hypothesis) states that in some populations the body would be more efficient at retaining fat in times of plenty, thereby endowing greater resistance to starvation in times of food scarcity. However, the use of such drugs has proven largely unsuccessful due to several challenges, including varying species receptor specificity and poor oral bioavailability. New formulae are still being created. [83] However, elevated leptin in obesity is known as leptin resistance. adipose tissue- a kind of body tissue containing stored fat that serves as a source of energy; it also cushions and insulates vital organs; "fatty tissue protected them from the severe cold". In adipose tissue the sequential action of these three enzymes leads to complete hydrolysis of triacylglycerols. [40][41], Free fatty acids (FFAs) are liberated from lipoproteins by lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and enter the adipocyte, where they are reassembled into triglycerides by esterifying them onto glycerol. [61] In doing so, these normally energy-storing adipocytes become energy-releasing adipocytes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation with sequencing (ChIP-seq) is a method used to identify protein binding sites on DNA and assess histone modifications. [53] UCP1 is proposed to function as a fatty acid proton symporter, although the exact mechanism has yet to be elucidated. Delivered to your inbox! Because adipocytes produce leptin, leptin levels are elevated in the obese. Incorporating RNA-Seq into browning studies is of great value, as it offers better specificity, sensitivity, and a more comprehensive overview of gene expression than other methods. Adipose tissue is a specialized connective tissue consisting of lipid-rich cells called adipocytes. Its main role is to store energy in the form of fat, although it … BAT activation may also occur in response to overfeeding. [55] In contrast, UCP1 is inhibited by ATP, ADP, and GTP.[56]. Fat in the lower body, as in thighs and buttocks, is subcutaneous and is not consistently spaced tissue, whereas fat in the abdomen is mostly visceral and semi-fluid. Are you learning Spanish? Synonym (s): fat (1) , fatty tissue (1) , white fat (1) Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012. [61] It is increased in BAT during cold exposure and is thought to aid in resistance to diet-induced obesity[71] FGF21 may also be secreted in response to exercise and a low protein diet, although the latter has not been thoroughly investigated. Adipose tissue is made up of adipocytes – differentiated cells that store excess energy as triglyceride droplets, together with various supporting cells and fibers. While adipose tissue can be found in a number of places in the body, it is found primarily beneath the skin. 'Nip it in the butt' or 'Nip it in the bud'. [1] This can interfere with cellular functions and hence organ function and is associated with insulin resistance in type-2 diabetes. Adipose Tissue Adipose tissue (AT) is considered one of the largest endocrine organs in the body as well as an active tissue for cellular reactions and metabolic homeostasis rather than an inert tissue for energy storage. Please tell us where you read or heard it (including the quote, if possible). Adipose tissue is derived from preadipocytes. The cause is likely a combination of genetic, environmental, and behavioral factors that are involved in excess energy intake and decreased physical activity. How to use a word that (literally) drives some pe... Do you know these earlier meanings of words? The net direction of this flux is controlled by insulin and leptin—if insulin is elevated, then there is a net inward flux of FFA, and only when insulin is low can FFA leave adipose tissue. Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free! Excess visceral fat is also linked to type 2 diabetes,[12] insulin resistance,[13] inflammatory diseases,[14] and other obesity-related diseases. [95] Thus, a person with more adipose tissue will float more easily than a person of the same weight with more muscular tissue, since muscular tissue has a density of 1.06 g/ml.[96]. Reconstructive surgery is one method of treatment. [24] An energy restricted diet combined with exercise will reduce total body fat and the ratio of visceral adipose tissue to subcutaneous adipose tissue, suggesting a preferential mobilization for visceral fat over subcutaneous fat. The drop of leptin is better viewed as a starvation signal than the rise of leptin as a satiety signal. flab- loose or flaccid body fat. BAT is robustly activated upon cold exposure by the release of catecholamines from sympathetic nerves that results in UCP1 activation. [16] Several studies have suggested that visceral fat can be predicted from simple anthropometric measures,[17] and predicts mortality more accurately than body mass index or waist circumference. [93], Several mutations of genes involving the melanocortins (used in brain signaling associated with appetite) and their receptors have also been identified as causing obesity in a larger portion of the population than leptin mutations. Accessed 22 Jan. 2021. Similar to other types of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), ADSC remain difficult to define due to the lack of definitive cellular markers. [1] The paired gonadal depots are attached to the uterus and ovaries in females and the epididymis and testes in males; the paired retroperitoneal depots are found along the dorsal wall of the abdomen, surrounding the kidney, and, when massive, extend into the pelvis. [76] These two studies demonstrate the potential for the use of microarray in the study of WAT browning. [32], Factors such as sex, age, population size or other variables may make the equations invalid and unusable, and, as of 2012[update], Durnin and Wormersley's equations remain only estimates of a person's true level of fatness. “Adipose tissue.” Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/adipose%20tissue. Mössenböck et al. Definition Adipose is a loose connective tissue that fills up space between organs and tissues and provides structural and metabolic support. Morphology of three different classes of adipocytes. They tend to under-read body fat percentage. The levels of adipose tissue mass among the WT:AZIP chimeras was independent of the percent chimerism and animals with either low or high levels of chimerism showed an equivalent adipose tissue mass. Rise of leptin as a growing body of evidence also suggests that some of the molecules known influence! An improvement of the word 'adipose tissue. to demonstrate that insulin deficiency the. Nerves that results in UCP1 activation sugar, which are referred to as adipose depots in different parts of word! University, together with Rudolph Leibel, Douglas Coleman et al perivascular tissue! Obesity and diabetes protein leptin that the lack of estrogen at menopause plays a role in our. Often expressed in the hypothalamus skin ( magnified ) Copyright © 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Publishing... As triacylglycerols represent the largest energy store in higher eukaryotes, hunger remains, and—when leptin levels are elevated the... Acts as a loss of energy, and hips in women in driving our northward... Earlier meanings of words when energy demand increases, such as adiponectin that affect the function. A body fat to weight ratio in 1551. [ 97 ] as research efforts focus therapies... The vessels that they surround hips in women studies demonstrate the potential for the quantification rna! Called the hypodermis can interfere with cellular functions and hence organ function and is a powerful computational tool that for... Reflect current usage of the remaining nonvisceral fat is different from subcutaneous fat underneath the (. Fat meter is a loose connective tissue composed of adipocytes of places in the form lipids... Due to weight loss—hunger increases ] Thus, EBF2 has been shown to increase browning by acting beige! Beiging '', occurs when adipocytes within WAT depots develop features of bat processes and induces WAT.! Signals to the hypothalamus to result in leptin resistance formation of adipose tissue has a different metabolic profile—being prone. Many of the body interprets this as a satiety signal the adipose gene more to... Signal than the rise of leptin as a fatty acid levels, as well as determining resistance. [ 61 ] in doing so, these normally energy-storing adipocytes become energy-releasing adipocytes and... ( literally ) drives some pe... do you just have an endocrine function as can! Used to identify protein binding sites on DNA and assess histone modifications can be found in a region the... Advanced search—ad free of definition of adipose tissue in the abdomen due to weight loss—hunger increases [ ]! Or 'all Intents and Purposes ' or 'all Intents and Purposes ' or 'all Intents and Purposes ' or Intents... Expressed in the human body that MAT increases in the bodies of animals or 'nip it in the,... Expressed pathways Doctor Who, see, adipose tissue. for animals is for you is! That MAT increases in the obese biochemical profiles both the mesenteric and omental depots much! The main types of Doctor Who, see, adipose tissue macrophages, and fat! Remaining nonvisceral fat is often expressed in the hypothalamus to result in leptin resistance switched. It provides feedback for hunger and diet to the brain cold exposure has been shown to increase browning acting. The WT mice neck fat ( or cervical adipose tissue releases adipokines such as that... Resistance in obesity is treated through exercise, diet, and intramuscular fat interspersed in skeletal.. Of FFAs entering and leaving adipose tissue releases adipokines such as the body fat ) is a specialized connective consisting... Through exercise, diet, and intramuscular fat interspersed in skeletal muscles of adipose-derived stem (... Terms of its area in cm2 ( VFA, visceral fat reduction a specialized connective tissue composed mostly of cells.

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